Friday, 12 February 2016

Can geodesy and its links to ancient monuments be used in teaching?

Our earliest society believed that their Universe consisted of a sphere in which the Earth was at the centre (known as a geocentric or Ptolemaic worldview).

The "Solving the Neolithic" project is based on the idea that some Neolithic structures may be the result of the way our ancestors came to the above conclusion: Several dozen monuments have the appearance of being the remains of structures built to answer philosophical questions about the nature of the world. A few of these methods require some lateral thinking.

A sample of remains which might result from some of these logical thought processes can be found at Avebury, Newgrange, Knowth and each of the three main phases of Stonehenge.

The post below is about whether or not this type of logic-driven discovery process has any value as a teaching aid in the modern era. It came about through a discussion in the Pre-historic society's area of facebook. If you have any comments about how this might be used in teaching, please feel free to comment on this page or on the facebook site


Some of the ideas on how this might be applied have already been written up for try-out in schools. The methods that appear to me to have the highest likelihood of having some use in education are:

1) A method to find out if the stars rotates around our planet

This arrangement is partially written up and can be reproduced at a location known as The Long Man in East Sussex. There is some debate about whether or not the Long Man itself is any more than a few hundred years old. However, it is known that the relevant slope was cleared during the Neolithic.

2) A layout description of the general cosmos (stars) 
This idea is a method of describing our cosmos from the point of view of an observer standing on what she believes to be a fixed world. It applies to a few locations (Ring of Brodgar for example). In this instance, the method of describing that cosmos is written up for Phase II of the monument known as Stonehenge.

3) A layout description of how to work out if the Sun's movement is fixed from year to year

Once the cosmos is established (2 above), the layout can be drawn geocentrically to show how the sun moves and its furthest extent at solstice. Once drawn out, this layout is the same as a place called Avebury (for winter solstice). It's worth looking at Stonehenge below (item 10) before reading this one.

4) A construction method to determining whether the Sun has fixed ranges

This method requires some lateral thinking, but results in structures that appear to be duplicated at many sites. The one with the highest degree of confirmatory details, together with engravings representing the ideas, is Newgrange.

5) A method to find out whether or not the Earth is curved or a flat disk 
This combination of circumstances is unusual because it requires some very specific conditions to exist naturally. At Preseli, it is possible to conclude that our world is not flat by walking from one tall hill to another. These conditions happen to exist just above the spot that the quarry for Stonehenge's bluestones is thought to be located: Neolithic mounds are located at the precise location of each of the two natural features.

6) A construction method to find out whether or not the Earth is a (curved) sphere or a curved disk

This method requires a series of observations at unusual topographic locations. Each of these locations has a monument, of the specialised form required, and placed at exactly the correct topographical spot. This series of Neolithic monuments exists along the South Coast of England.

As yet it is not written up for the internet, but a very short explanation can be found in the book.

7) A layout description of a method to determine how to find out the size of the Earth

This method is a variant on the one used by Al-Biruni in the 16th century. Unlike Al-buruni's method, it does not require any special equipment. Al-Biruni's method is different from the one thought to have first been developed by Eratosthenes. This layout, needed for the modified Biruni method, is the same as found at a Neolithic monument along the South Coast of England.

As yet it is not written up for the internet, but a very short explanation can be found in the book.

8) A construction method to determine the size of the Earth

The method described in 6&7 above requires a specialised monument at a specific topographical location. The best example of this type of arrangement exists as a Neolithic monument on the adjacent hill to the one described in 7 above.

As yet it is not written up for the internet, but a detailed explanation, together with the results of tests to reproduce the method, can be found in the book.

9) Ancillary construction methods required to determine the size of the Earth

These arrangements exist as a series of Neolithic monuments adjacent to the hill described in 8) above.

As yet it is not written up for the internet, but a very short explanation can be found in the book.

10) A layout description (geocentric) of the results of some of the above [of two parts]

This arrangement is a general description of a known cosmos after all the experiments (and some others) referred to above have been done. This layout exists at Stonehenge in its third and last phase (but nowhere else).

11) A construction method to physically demonstrate the results of all of the above

This arrangement recreates a physical demonstration of knowledge about a geocentric system. The result of this is spectacular. The basis of this system was published as a patent in the 1970's and similar systems are in use in India today. An alternative version of this type of system appears to be duplicated at Stonehenge.

A description of this system can be found in the book. It would require significant effort to duplicate it for teaching purposes, so has not been linked to at this stage.


I've cut the above list down, but there are more than a dozen arrangements, for other similar purposes related to geodesy, which appear to be duplicated in Neolithic monuments. A much shortened version of the above list, in a format already prepared for schools, can be found here.
The sequence that the project is based upon starts with a single observation at a geographical location which has a very unusual set of characteristics. This set of characteristics only appears to exist in Scotland, and only at one place.

If you have any comments about how any of the above might be used in teaching, or which ones would be best prepared in more detail, please feel free to comment on the facebook page or on this site. 

We would be especially grateful for sharing on social media to anyone who might be interested.

Saturday, 26 December 2015

Arguments for and against a Neolithic quarry in the Preseli Mountains


Mike Parker Pearson and other well known archaeologists put forward the case for two quarries being located just below the peaks mentioned in the post below. This paper can be downloaded at:
Craig Rhos-y-felin: a Welsh bluestone megalith quarry for Stonehenge 
Mike Parker Pearson,Richard Bevins, Rob Ixer, Joshua Pollard, Colin Richards, KateWelham, Ben Chan, Kevan Edinborough, Derek Hamilton, RichardMacphail, Duncan Schlee, Jean-Luc Schwenninger, Ellen Simmons &Martin Smith
However, Brian John and other geomorphologists make the case for the features (found by the archaeologists) to be entirely natural:

What do you think?

Friday, 22 May 2015

A view from a satellite

View from a satellite looking roughly westwards over a computer simulated landscape of the Preseli Mountains:

View from a satellite looking roughly eastwards over a computer simulated landscape of the Preseli Mountains:

Both of these pictures look fairly ordinary. But one of the two must be looking down: Feddau is below Eryr in the first picture and Eryr is below Feddau in the second picture. But if one is looking down, where is the horizon?

This is a question I was asked on the Simon Mayo show: Can you see the curvature of the Earth from a mountain? The answer is that you can see a disk shape, but the disk you can see is not necessarily the curvature of the Earth: You could be on a flat disk. However, from two tall mountains of the same height, you can prove that the Earth is curved if you can see the horizon (below the slope of the other mountain) at sunrise: Sunrise or sunset is the time that the horizon can be precisely seen.

The angles involved are tiny: This experiment with mountain peaks only seems to work at a place called Preseli in Wales where two high mountain peaks are approximately of the same height, are aligned approximately east-west and have no obscured views for a long distance in either direction: The angles to the horizon at this particular height would show that Ireland and England would not exist if you are on a flat disk.

Thursday, 23 October 2014

Sky Stands Still: Stonehenge

Theme tune "Sky Stands Still" incorporates ideas of Heavens' Henge (Stonehenge). This was produced for the film "The Principle", for which I had a small consulting role

Saturday, 27 September 2014


Newgrange’s layout, arrangements and symbols are shown to be the same as those required to establish that the sun has a fixed spiral ‘orbit’, allowing an idealised geocentric description of the Universe to be developed elsewhere (such as at Avebury and Stonehenge). Its inner stone monument is demonstrated to be capable of focusing solar light, using a simple method not relying on glass, to allow extremely accurate measurement.

The contention of this paper is that Newgrange was a device, part of a series of devices, that allowed subsequent structures (such as Stonehenge) to be developed as a depository of knowledge about the Universe and a place of learning designed for popular interest.

Saturday, 10 May 2014

Rilko Conference: 31 May

The RILKO Conference takes place at the end of this month: I will be closing the conference.

Saturday 31st May - Rudolf Steiner House - London 10.00am for 10.30 to 8.00pm £35.00 - £30.00 RILKO members.
Conference leaflet at: 

Book on-line at:


RILKO Conference - Phone 07956 341578 for further information.
Speakers include:
Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince The Real Leonardo da Vinci: Not the Messiah - But a Very Naughty Boy
Spilling the beans on twenty years of joint research

Sylvia Francke The Mysteries of Chartres Cathedral 
Ancient Mystery knowledge running through Platonic inspiration

Robert Harris Great Pyramids of Giza - Cast Like Concrete
Reconstituted limestone also found on the Rio Tinto River - Was Plato correct 

Jon Allen
Geometry: Past -
Present - Future - An Architect's Perspective
Twenty years of practical application of geometry - From Pythagoras to the present day 

Gary Bilcliffe and Caroline Hoare Awakening the Web of Albion
The middle axis line of Great Britain - Mystical leys and networks of light

Jonathan Morris Stonehenge - Pre-Celtic Geocentric Universe
A contemporary solar-based technology virtually identical to a design within Stonehenge - A complete surprise!!

Monday, 9 December 2013

The Principle

Here's the trailer for the film about recent discoveries in cosmology.

The trailer references Stonehenge (at 2 minutes in). But only the film contains the full Stonehenge Sequence; a short "show and tell" of what Stonehenge was for. The producers used the sequences developed in Heavens' Henge, which is described in much more detail in Stonehenge: Solving the Neolithic Universe.

The Stonehenge Sequence was developed by BUF Compagnie, Paris ("Total Recall", Life of Pi")